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Can You Survive In A Black Hole?! DEBUNKED

Can You Survive In A Black Hole?!  DEBUNKED

Except for an extremely small number of lucky
astronauts or the billionaire customers of Elon Musk, most of us won’t get the chance
to escape Earth. But even though we’re stuck down here, everyone
knows there are certain things you want to avoid up there. Don’t get blown out of an airlock, never vomit
inside your helmet and avoid going into a black hole, because once you’re in you’re
not getting back out again. It’s impossible for anything to escape one
of those things. Even light. They’re essentially the universe’s ultimate
prison. In fact, black holes are probably one of the
most weird and brain melting things in existence. The physicist who invented the term black
hole, John A. Wheeler, said they teach us… “THAT SPACE CAN BE CRUMPLED LIKE A PIECE OF
everything we’ve ever believed in and give the biggest brains on the planet something
of a headache, there’s one thing everyone agrees on, you can’t get out of one. Neil deGrasse Tyson put it pretty simply,
nothing, escape from a black hole? I’m Stu, this is Debunked, where we sort
the truths from the myths and the facts from the misconceptions. This video is made possible with the support
of ‘’! A problem solving site and app that aims to
develop your scientific thinking. Before we can truly understand whether anything
can escape the clutches of a black hole, we need to understand what these monsters are
and how they work. Well, to put it simply, a black hole is basically
a point in space that can seemingly devour everything in its path. And, once they’ve gobbled something up,
their gravitational pull is so strong that there’s no chance of that intergalactic
meal ever being seen again. And, while we’re on the subject of hungry
black holes, a lot of you might have heard that black holes just suck everything up,
like a massive vacuum cleaner. Well that’s not what happens, Black holes
aren’t sucking at all. What actually occurs, is that things fall
into the black hole as a result of its gravity. Think of it this way. You’ve got a really old satellite, well past
its sell by date, let’s call it Sputnik. It’s time for Sputnik to retire and come back
down to Earth. Now, you wouldn’t describe the Earth as sucking
that satellite down, rather the satellite is falling to Earth, because of gravity. It’s the same for a black hole, if an object
gets close enough to it, then gravity will cause it to fall in. If you’re still not convinced, let’s swap
out the sun with a black hole of the same mass. If anyone was expecting a quick death and
some crushing apocalypse, I’ve got some good news, that’s not what would happen. The black hole would exert the same gravity
as the Sun, so the planets keep orbiting as normal. There’s no huge suck in the solar system
pulling everything in. If anything, you can expect a slow death and
a freezing apocalypse instead, because no Sun, means no heat, means no humans. But just how powerful can a black hole’s
gravity be? Well, light, travelling at a whopping 1.07
billion kilometres per hour, can’t get away from these gargantuan gravitational forces
once its got too close.. And as we all know, you can’t travel faster
than the speed of light, so once something is in a black hole, it’s staying there. That all sounds pretty scary but not as scary
as the fact that, technically, anyone of us watching this video could become a black hole
ourselves. All you’d have to do is compress yourself
into a really tiny space… really tiny. Take an average human, compress them down
to a size much smaller than an atom’s nucleus (10-23 cm) and they’ll be dead. Sure. But their mass would now be dense enough to
produce gravity so strong that light wouldn’t be able to escape – in other words you’ve
got yourself… a black hole. Every object has something known as a Schwarzschild
radius. This is the space that, should you manage
to compress the object’s mass into it, then you’d create a gravity so strong that light
can’t escape. Collapse the Earth down so its got an 8.7
millimetre radius, making it roughly the size of a peanut, and you’ve guessed it, you’ve
created a black hole. Fortunately, black holes aren’t created
by collapsing planets or people, usually they’re formed by collapsing stars. Big stars too, ones that start out with a
mass around 25 times that of our own Sun. When one of these larger stars runs out of
fuel, it collapses in on itself, forming a black hole. This type of black hole is not only incredibly
dense, they’re also incredibly common. According to the Harvard-Smithsonian Center
for Astrophysics, our galaxy, the Milky Way, contains a few hundred million of them. And right at the centre of the Milky Way,
is thought to be another type of black hole altogether, a supermassive black hole. Scientists aren’t exactly sure how these
black holes form, but they’re confident that these behemoths sit in the centre of
pretty much every galaxy, not just our own. And they keep gaining mass from the nearby
dust and gas found in the heart of most galaxies. Now, you’re probably wondering what supermassive
even means. Okay, so if the mass of our sun is 2 nonillion
kilograms – that’s a lot of zeros. Well, a supermassive black hole can be billions
of times more massive than that, meaning we’re talking about billions of nonillions of kilograms. Let’s take the supermassive black hole that’s
closest to home, Sagittarius A* (Sagittarius A-Star), slap bang in the middle of the Milky
Way. Its mass is the equivalent of 4 million suns
but its diameter is just 17 times larger – in other words, these supermassive black holes
are super dense. Now it might seem reasonable to assume that
all that mass is evenly distributed throughout the black sphere, but those billions of nonillions
of kilograms are squeezed into a point that is so small, it is actually impossible to
measure, and is known as the singularity. Now this obviously doesn’t show us much,
so if we take a cross section and flip it around… the Singularity would look like
this. This point sits deep inside the black hole,
leading to infinite density and gravity. Understandably gravity that strong can stop
everything from escaping its clutches, even if the object is travelling at the universe’s
top speed, the speed of light. So, if you were able to look directly at a
black hole, what would you see? Well, you wouldn’t be viewing the singularity
that makes the black hole, instead you’d be looking at the black hole’s event horizon. This is the boundary or edge of the black
hole, and once something has crossed that line and gone past the event horizon, into
the black hole, then it’s game over. There’s no getting out, because you’d
need to travel at or above the speed of light to do so, which I’m afraid is just impossible. Even if you got close to a black hole’s
event horizon, it’s important to remember that you couldn’t see anything going on
inside because literally nothing can escape out through that barrier. For people on the outside trying to look in,
you’d just see a black void, which, depending on how close you were, could be a tiny black
ball or a huge void filling your field of vision. However, that doesn’t mean there isn’t
a load of other cool stuff going on outside the black hole. What you’d see here is a swirling ring of
gas and dust that’s gathered there because of the hole’s incredible gravity. This so-called accretion disc circles the
black hole and is slowly consumed by it, a bit like water circling a drain, but because
of the incredible friction generated by the unfathomable speeds, those bits of material
are heated to billions of degrees, releasing radiation and glowing incredibly brightly. This process can lead to something known as
a quasar. For example, a supermassive black hole with
a mass two billion times that of the Sun, led to a quasar which gave off an extreme
amount of light. How extreme? 60 trillion times more light than our Sun. So, while the black hole itself is completely
devoid of light, their existence can help produce some of the brightest objects in the
entire universe. And while we’re on the subject of black
holes and light, because they’re so massive their gravity can warp space-time. What this means in practice, is that light
coming from objects behind a black hole would be bent, distorted or magnified. This phenomenon is called gravitational lensing
and is a bit like looking at the universe using a funhouse mirror. Let’s say you were on Earth, doing a bit
of star gazing and you spot a bright light source somewhere on the other side of the
universe. It just looks like a white dot in the sky,
but if a black hole were to somehow pass between the Earth and the dot, you’d see something
like this. When the black hole was directly in front
of the dot, the small but solid dot would appear to become a larger hollow circle. In truth, nothing has changed, it’s still
a bright spot but the black holes gravity has distorted light so much that it looks
completely different to us. But enough of what’s going on outside the
black hole, what everyone wants to know is what would happen if you booked a one-way
ticket and went inside? Essentially… you’d die, but how you’d
die is still up for debate. Let’s look at scenario 1. You’ve jumped into the black hole feet first,
which means your feet are closer to the singularity than your head. In other words, the bottom part of your body
will be subject to stronger gravitational forces than the top part, and the difference
between those forces will become even greater the closer you get to the singularity. Scientists refer to these differences in force
as tidal forces, and the result of them on the human body isn’t good. You’d slowly be stretched from toe to head
and squished inward at the sides, basically creating a human-flavoured piece of spaghetti. Hence why this process is called spaghettification. Put more simply, the tidal forces will rip
you apart, breaking down every molecule of your existence. Weirdly though, smaller black holes would
kill you faster than a supermassive one. This might seem counterintuitive, but with
a small black hole you’re a lot closer to the singularity, so those tidal forces start
to have an effect much earlier. In fact, they could kill you before you’d
even crossed the event horizon. Oddly, with a supermassive black hole you
could cross the event horizon and survive for a while before being turned into a noodle. But that’s just one theory about death by
black hole. Time for scenario 2, first put forward in
2012 by physicists Ahmed Almheiri, Donald Marolf, Joe Polchinski and James Scully. According to them, someone falling into a
black hole would be incinerated by a huge firewall made up of ultra-high energy particles
as they made their way across the event horizon. This relatively new idea isn’t exactly popular
in the scientific community. Raphael Bousso, a physicist at the University
of California, Berkeley, said “A FIREWALL SIMPLY CAN’T APPEAR IN EMPTY
CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY However, despite some reservations about this
new theory, scientists have yet to disprove the idea. One thing is clear however, you are going
to die. And it’s not going to be pretty. So, crossing the event horizon wasn’t the
best idea. Let’s rewind and this time, maybe you trick
an enemy, let’s call them Darth, into taking a journey to a black hole. What would you see as he unsuspectingly got
closer and closer to his final destination? As we’ve learnt, black holes can warp light,
but they can also do some pretty strange things to time as well. As you watched Darth fall ever closer to the
black hole he’d appear to be moving increasingly slowly and his watch would tick more slowly
than yours. Also, you’d never actually see him cross
over the event horizon, instead he’d just grind to a stop, in a kind of suspended animation,
right on the edge of the black hole. Because of the extreme gravity, any light
coming from Darth would be shifted to the red end of the spectrum, making him seem red
as he got closer to the black hole. Eventually he’d just get dimmer and dimmer
and fade away, and according to you, he never actually makes it across the event horizon. But he does make it, and then he’s either
turned into spaghetti or barbecued by radiation. Thankfully Darth is never coming back, well
unless Disney come up with a really convoluted plot device. But, it doesn’t matter who you are, you
can’t escape a black hole. Renowned physicist Kip Thorne, who helped
consult on the film Interstellar, sums up black holes as: “A HOLE IN SPACE WITH A DEFINITE EDGE OVER
But, here’s the thing, this isn’t strictly true. Okay, bear with me, because we’re going to
have to leap very briefly into some quantum theory. According to this, empty space isn’t totally
empty. Here virtual particles can pop in and out
of existence in extremely short time frames. These particle-antiparticle pairs usually
just annihilate each other. For example, a positron, a particle of antimatter,
will annihilate an electron. This is happening all the time, but something
weird can happen when these virtual particles pop into existence around a black hole. We already know that nothing can escape from
inside the event horizon, and that’s true when these particles spawn inside a black
hole. They’re stuck there for a moment before
annihilating each other as usual. However, sometimes, outside of the hole, one
half of these particle pairs can pop into existence and then fall into the event horizon,
while the other half escapes off into the universe. This process is called Hawking radiation and
slowly causes the black hole to evaporate, since it is losing energy. I’m talking seriously slowly though, for
Sagittarius A*, our neighbouring supermassive black hole, it would take 10^87 years before
it evaporated away. That’s 1 octovigintillion years, and no,
that’s not a made up number! IT’S 87 ZEROS! Although we should point out that Hawking
radiation hasn’t actually been observed yet, it’s only been predicted by the late
great Stephen Hawking. And even if it is proven true, technically,
those particles are never inside the black hole just the edge of the event horizon, so
even Hawking radiation doesn’t break the rule that nothing can escape from a black
hole. However, it does change one thing about how
we perceive black holes – they’re probably not totally black, since they emit radiation. Then again the name ‘almost black holes’
doesn’t have the same ring to it. If you enjoyed this video then please help
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quizzes on Black Holes and the Life Cycle of Stars! Brilliant are offering the first 200 subscribers
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100 thoughts on “Can You Survive In A Black Hole?! DEBUNKED”

  1. Even if you could magically enchant yourself to move faster than the speed of light, you still couldn't escape a black hole. Once you cross the event horizon, you no longer have any futures that exist outside of it. Any movement you make, regardless of speed, will only move you closer to your inevitable demise, including trying to move outward. Moving faster than the speed of light is useless when there literally is no path that leads away from what you're trying to escape.

  2. Just mention quasars and Hawking radiation and you immediately debunked “nothing can escape a black hole”

  3. Can you increase the videos updating rate upto a video in about 2 weeks. Your videos are interesting but due to less videos on channel, you have less subs.
    Thank you if you think and apply this on ` Debunked '.

  4. Hey! Friend can you make a long documentary-like video on fusion and fission for your one of millions of subs.

    If anyone also wants a video on the topic then like !!! I would be thankful to you if you make the video.
    Thank you and have a great success on your channel.

  5. It would probably take 12.9e 17 centuries and I'm not really sure what you said was a number I love your video by the way

  6. You’d see the past and future stretching before in front of you. You would see time, except you wouldn’t have the time to do it.

  7. that is not what falling into a black hole would look like…

    It would look like, to outsiders looking in, you would stop at the event horizon, and slowly drain of colour over time until you fade out of existence

  8. Well technically black holes shoot out the matter they suck in so a lot of matter escapes a black hole.

  9. If the singularity has a infinite gravity why doesn't everything in the univesere get suck in it with the speed of light ?

  10. what if there Is another side to a blackhole and it's a white hole at another side in a differnet galaxy

  11. Have you ever tried using a camera and throwing it into a black hole and connecting it into the other camera on earth and see whats in the black hole before it probably crashes on the ground and breaks or not

  12. If the sun disappeared and was replaced by a black hole we would die in roughly 8 minutes only because it takes 7 minutes and some change for the light to hit the earth and earth would go into a mass snap freeze killin us instantly

  13. If you fell into a black hole, and got compressed, wouldn’t you be turned into a black hole?
    Your matter will eventually increase the mass of the black hole, and I mean all of it, including the center, which in theory has a infinite amount of pulling and crushing strength.

    I’m sure this would easily make the atoms in your body compress to that point.

    But if you do turn into a black hole, doesn’t that also mean blackholes eat themselves by consuming other bits of matter?
    If this is true, I think black holes would exist for an even shorter amount of time, as it’ll cause ripples in space quickly giving off radiation, basically ripping its self apart.

    I don’t know, just shower thoughts I guess.

  14. But yet black holes aren't black
    They're invisible and can only be recognised because of their eccretion disc and how they warp space-time.


  16. 5:20 or it might instead become a neutron star instead of collapse it will expand and the core will become neutron star

  17. So if our universe was once possibly a singularity as well, and Hawking radiation might exist. What would happen if inflation also happened right when the virtual particles pop up at that point of infinite density and energy (if they even can)? Since space itself can move faster than light?

  18. what if the whole universe is just an atom for something much larger than all of us
    imagine a universe is just a germ

  19. what would happen if you dropped a camera in the black hole while it's live?
    Would it just loose feed and appear as static?
    or would you see the same thing darth did?

  20. Wouldn't a black hole feel like a solid because its really dense, just like if you squeeze a paper really hard to a prop it will get harder to squeeze it because the mass get higher. So if you go in a black hole doenst it feel like youre glitching in wall like in a video game?

  21. Can binary stars escape a black hole?

    I just had this idea. Binary stars travel at incredible speeds when one is disconnected like via a black hole. If a pair of binary stars approached a black hole, one of the stars would get pulled in while the other would catapulted at incredibly fast speeds maybe even faster than the speed of light (I don’t know if that’s correct or not but depending on the speed the pair was traveling at and the speed of the orbit, under the right circumstances the star being launched might travel faster than the speed of light.) I don’t know if this is true but it seems like a plausible way to escape a black hole

    This is just my theory however so if I am correct or wrong please let me know

  22. @Debunked. Schwartzschild is a german name, you read it by german rules. Its "sh-wartz-shield", not "chaild". Gee, why are so many presumably educational channels messing up this basic thing…

  23. Did you know that the black hole isn’t actually a hole is a planet that has gravity so strong that it pulls in anything around it

  24. Interesting subject for a debunked video, if you’re looking for suggestions: spiders.

    Just how dangerous are they (or aren’t they)? And how might they actually BENEFIT humanity?

  25. Our latest video has been released – CAN THE INTERNET BE TAKEN DOWN / DESTROYED? – We find out how it could be done and what would happen if there was no internet… an INTERNET APOCALYPSE?

  26. What happens in a black hole, stays in a black hole.

    Escape a black hole =/= Escape from a black hole.

  27. To escape a black hole just transport your consciousness through to the Internet so somebody can download your consciousness and you will be implemented into another body or live in the internet

  28. Tbh the theory of staying stuck in the black hole is very hard to understand. What if the black hole sucks you in then like a whirlpool then spits you out into more universe on the other side? That is of course if you can survive the pull of gravity.

  29. Blackholes are not really known about so it is possibe something can escape a blackhole A particle not known about

  30. I've been hearing some astronomers saying that some black holes light as well as matter can pass through to an alternate universe.. Would someone with a bit more knowledge of this,because Cygnus x-1 by Rush is only time I've heard of this.. How can this be tested..

  31. Oh so no nothing can escape a black hole ..unless you travel faster than the speed o light..which nothing or no one can..

  32. If black holes manipulate space time then theoretically if we could create one small enough, couldn’t we use that black hole to the “travel faster than light” without breaking Einstein theory of relativity?

  33. My father and his dad are bald, some of my uncles on my father's side still have all their hair (47 – 55 years old). My maternal grandfather never started losing his hair until his 50s. Maternal uncles are bald. Dear God, give a generation a break.

  34. I'll save you the time of wasting 15 minutes of your life on this video…

    Nothing can escape a black hole beyond it's event horizon… ABSOLUTELY… NOTHING…

  35. 5:31
    Scientist: We found out a Black Hole is in the center of the universe, what should we call
    Genius: Just call it a Super Massive Black Hole

    Scientist: That’s very creative there, let’s use it

    Edit: thanks Debunked

  36. I don't think it's just the escape velocity that's the problem. The warping of spacetime makes the whole concept of directions break down.

  37. Lol another shit video from this channel.

    First, the term wasn't INVENTED, it was COINED. The dude didn't make a black hole in a lab to bring them into existence.

    Second, you seem to have a fundamental misunderstanding of what black holes are, black holes being collapsed stars are only one possible way to create them, and it's only theory. They don't create a gravitational force in the way you supposed it (i.e. Replacing the sun with a black hole and keeping the planets in the same formation), the gravitational forces they project would not reach most of the planets in our solar system, and the planets that are affected by the gravitational force wouldn't stay in orbit, they'd either get closer to the black hole with each rotation on an exponential scale, or the force would be too weak to start that spiral and they wouldn't complete a rotation, moving away from the solar system and either come to a virtual stand still or become close enough to another celestial body to become entangled in it's gravitational field and eventually collide with it (even if that collision happens after thousands, millions, etc of years).

    Third, just because we don't have the ability to travel faster than light, doesn't mean it isn't possible; theoretically it IS possible (there are many theories as to how that would be possible, but the most popular is, effectively, shrinking to the size of an electron to maintain integrity of matter before being propelled beyond the speed of light, and keep in mind that even the most infinitesimal amount of speed beyond the speed of light would 'do the trick' and, theoretically, allow you to travel through time to some degree).

    Fourth, the 'firewall' theory isn't a LITERAL wall of fire, it's extraordinary compressed matter, which would at some point be plasmas, which would be a mass of high energy particles and although you wouldn't be subjected to the high energy particles, you would BE said high energy particles.

    Fifth, how did you 'debunk' things not being able to escape black holes when in the video you confirm the only things that seem to escape black holes are hawking radiation particles, but they're never actually in the black hole, so they're not escaping.

    This channel is pure clickbait garbage.

  38. What if you when into a black hole found a way to get outside of it could you time travel because the black hole manipulates time

  39. Wouldn't coming into contact with a black holes gravity well orient you with the accretion disk? In that case, wouldn't you fry before ever reaching the event horizon, thus rendering a perfectly wonderful video moot?

  40. Am I the only one who is actually terrified of black holes to the extent I feel lightheaded whenever I think of it, even though we are most likely safe?

  41. So, if I watch Darth forever falling into the black hole (as information can't travel faster than light) , would he be seeing the entire lifetime of our universe in seconds?

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