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The Curious Life of a Mars Rover | Nat Geo Live

The Curious Life of a Mars Rover | Nat Geo Live

( intro music ) ( applause ) Kobie Boykins: Tonight what we
are going to try to do… we are going to take
an exploration, an exploration of
the planet surface of Mars. And we are going to look
at that planet through the
eyes of Rovers. And the first Rovers
we’re going to talk about are Spirit and Opportunity, the two Mars Exploration Rovers. And then we’re going to
switch into Curiosity. A larger Rover and its
job is to do something
a little different. But first we have to
go back in time. We’re going to back
approximately 10 years, a little bit more than 10 years. And we’re going to discuss
what happensand how Spirit and Opportunity
made it to the surface of Mars.
So, we’re going to fly over to
Kennedy Space Center in Florida
and we’re going to go
and we’re going to get
real close and personal
with the Delta II rocket.
Now this is the Delta II rocket,it’s built by the
Boeing Company.
It has three stages to orbit.And around the bottom side
of this vehicle
there’s nine air-lit solids.So this is going to help us
get a little bit extra lift,
so that we can get to Mars
as rapidly as possible.
And if you don’t mind
counting down with me. Five, four, three, two. Begin ignition.And lift off of the Delta II
rocket with the
Mars Exploration–
And in a minute and 30 seconds
we’re in orbit around Earth.
As you see, we’re starting todrop away some of the
air-lit solids.
Once those air-lit solids fall
back away they get recycled.
They get picked up.Once out first stage burns out,we’re going to let that go,we’re going to light
our second stage.
Once we light our second stagethen we let that first stage
fall back to the ocean,
it becomes an ecosystem
for the fish.
We light our second stage.At this point the spacecraft
has very little stability,
so we are going to spin it up.We spin it up to about 12 RPM,more or less like a quarterback
that throws a nice,
tight spiral.
We are going to get really good
flight through the air.
We light our third stage,this puts us on
a direct trajectory to Mars.
We are going to do what we like
to call quiescent period. The boring period of travelling
through interstellar space. ( audience laughter ) Okay. So now…Seven months later, here we aretravelling at
16,000 miles per hour
toward the surface of Mars.We lose our cruise stage because
we don’t need it any more.
It has pointed us
directly at Mars,
we are ready to go and we are
going to hit our landing site.
We are travelling at
16,000 miles per hour
and we hit the
upper atmosphere of Mars.
When we hit the
upper atmosphere of Mars,
the friction as we come throughliterally burns a hole
in the upper atmosphere.
The heat shield
in the front of our Rover
gets to about the
surface temperature of the Sun
1600 degrees centigrade.At this point we’re
going to start
what I like to call
reverse origami.
We’re going to pull up
a parachute,
this is a supersonic parachuteand that’s going to start
changing our angle
of attack from being directly into being more vertical
with the surface of Mars.
At this point
we’re going to slow down
to around 300-400
miles per hour.
We are going to lose
our heat shield
because we don’t want that heat
to come back into our vehicle.
We are going to lower our lander
more or less on a shoestring.
Once we find the surface
we blow up the airbags.
That takes about
the blink of an eye,
about half a millisecond.And then we’re going to fire
some retrorockets
when we get to about
40 meters above the surface,
slow down to zero miles per hourcut the cord and bounce.And we bounce…and we bounce.Now the first bounce of
this vehicle could take us over,
I use,
the Empire State Building.
we can bounce anywhere from
a mile and a half to two miles.
Each successive bounce
is taking away a
little bit of energy,
which slows us down.After we lose all of our energy
and we come to a stop,
we are going to
deflate the airbags.
So the vehicle senses that
we’ve stopped
we deflate the airbags.What you saw happen
in a few seconds there takes about
45 minutes in real time. The next thing
that we’re going to do is we’re going to open up
our lander petals. We are going to open up
these lander petals now, what you’re going to see
happen in about 30 seconds happens in 45 minutes.The next thing
that we are going to do
we are going to open up
the solar arrays.
If you don’t mind,
I’ll watch too.
Ah!( audience laughter )We’ve got one more thing to do.Just one more part.
Okay, just…
once it gets over center,
ah, okay! Well done.I must have seen this
a thousand times, it doesn’t matter
how many times I see it, I get very excited
when it works. Because my team and I were
the team that designed that and if it didn’t work we had
a very, very bad day on Mars. So, when it works
I get a little excited. So, open up the solar arrays, now we can power the vehicle. We are starting to
charge up the batteries. The last things that you
are going to see happen
on this first day is we pull up the Pancam mast,
what we call the PMA. And we deploy our
high-gain antennas, so we can talk directly
back to Earth. The last thing that you are
going to see the Rover do in this animation is it’s going
to take a panoramic image.One of the things that you want
to do when you’ve landed
in a new place
is find out where you are.So we are going to
take this beautiful image,
we’re going to start
transmitting that back to Earth.
So the next day
what we’re going to do is
we’re going to stand up
the vehicle.
Deploy the front wheels,and we’re going to change
more or less
our perspective on the surface.When we designed
Spirit and Opportunity,
we designed the eyes
to be at 5-foot-2.
That’s approximately the level
of a human being walking
on the surface of Mars.So, now when we take imagesand we get our panoramic images,it’s going to feel like a human
being was standing on Mars
looking around.
We are looking for
scientifically exciting sites.Spirit and Opportunity
are roving geologists.
Their job was to follow
the water,
to look for water that may have
flown on the surface of Mars.
And we are going to do
that through the history
of the rocks.
Go up taste the rocks,
touch the rocks, feel the rocks,
if you can break the rocks.Try to figure out
do the rocks tell us something
about the history of Mars.So now the last thing
that we have to do
is drive the Rover
off the lander.
You are going to see
the lander change it’s
position a little bit,
get ready for the
Rover to drive off
on these things called batwings.We drive off on those batwingsand we get six wheels
on the surface of Mars.
We call Spirit the bad sister.And not because
she was bad in any way…
but we drive off the lander,
we go up to the first rock. The rock was called Adirondack. We took out her arm,
we touched the rock and as soon as we
touched the rock Spirit did not call home. It’s like ET went,
“I no phone home.” So, we were worried that
we didn’t understand what was going on with Spirit. Remember that boring period of driving through
interstellar space that I told you about…
seven months. So, during that
seven month period of time we had one of the
biggest solar flares, solar activities
that we have ever seen, Alright? So lots of gamma rays,
bad stuff… are… the sun burped, bad stuff goes flying through
interstellar space. So what did we do? First time ever when we
were flying a spacecraft into deep space we actually
rebooted the computer. So we turned it off. ( audience laughter ) Turned it back on. And it goes, “Hey, I’m here.” And we go all, “Oh goodness,
gracious, thank you.” Okay! It calls back home,
we are like great, great, great. It has all of this great stuff, it starts recording everything
that it’s doing, all of it’s maneuvers,
it records all the things
that are felt, all the bounces on the surface,
everything, everything… eight days later drives off,
touches a rock and it’s memory got full. And once its memory got full,
the computer wouldn’t boot up. And we actually told it to
erase it’s memory, threw all of that stuff
through quiescent space away. And then,
“Hey, here I am all happy.” “Do whatever you want me to do.”
“Do the rock.” And then Spirit became okay Spirit and Opportunity were,
I’ll tell you, they were designed to go
to the surface of Mars and explore the surface
for 90 days. And travel up to 600 meters.Spirit was on the surfacecommunicating for more than
five years.
Traveled a little less than
five miles.
Opportunity, the good sister
landed a month later,
has been on the surface
for over a decade
and continues giving us
great information daily.
And she’s traveled
over 25 miles.
So, why do we go to Mars?
Why is Mars such an interesting place
to explore? In the image that you see
behind me on the left is Mars. And on the right is Earth. Looks like where river or water may have run
at some point in time.In this image,
I have switched it around.
On the left is Earth,
on the right is Mars.
That image on the right
is the largest known volcano
in our solar system.The rocky planets,
it’s called the Olympus Mons,
it’s on the surface of Mars.It’s approximately the size
of the state of Arizona.
Go back to the early 70s,
76-77 when we landed
the Viking landers
on the surface of Mars.
We have Mars Pathfinder,
which landed in
July 4th of 1997.
And then we had Phoenix.And then you have the
two landing sites for
Spirit and Opportunity,
in this topographical map.
Let me show it in
a different way.
For those that like
planetary maps
you can see where we landed.And the other thing
that you’ll see in this
is the yellow places are the
places that we’ve landed,
the ones in white were thepossibilities for
Curiosity to land.
So, now we’re on the surface.Spirit and Opportunity caughtsome very interesting things
on the surface.
From orbit we could see things
that look like large tracks,
long tracks on the…
on the dust, the surface.
And we always postulated
that they would have to have
these dust devils,
but we had never seem them.
We believe that this is
one of the reasons
the vehicles have lasted
so long.
Every so often when these
dust devils would come by
and clean off my solar arrays…and make us happy
and we make more power and now the Rovers can
continue to do their science. Very interesting.Scientifically this is one of
the most important images
that we took with the
Opportunity vehicle.
It was the first time ever
with a robotic vehiclethat we took an image
on the surface
at the exact same time
we took the image from orbit.
So, now we can actually do
atmospheric science from the ground and from
orbit at the exact same time.So, with Opportunity,
the good sister,
it travels 300 million miles,bounces along the
surface of Mars
and lands in a crater.There’s nothing there,
it’s just nothing,
except one rock.And the rock is not from Mars!It’s a meteorite
from somewhere else. Now, the interesting thing is we’ve seen quite a few of these
now on the surface of Mars.We do know that they are from
one of the four rocky planets
or some of the asteroid belt,
we do know that.
But where they are actually from
we don’t know, okay.
They probably were around
sort of the early formation of the planet. But we don’t know. But they are very interesting.
Very exciting.The Rover is now
here in Endeavour Crater.
It’s been exploring
Endeavour Crater
for at least a year now.We’ve driven down
into the crater,
we are at a new location
inside the crater.
We are seeing a lot more of
these clays, right.
So now we know that
in this location
all across the Meridiani Plains
there’s a lot of water.
Deep water.We see the change in salinity.Same thing for Spirit, as we drove up Husband Hill we started to see this change
in salinity in the soil. It was a failure that actually
told us that. One of the wheels
on the Spirit Rover stopped working
and so we started dragging it. And by dragging it we created this trench
on the surface of Mars. And as we were
creating this trench when we turned around
and took images we saw the actual albedo, the light that was coming off
the soil change. And that started to tell us
something is going on so we started doing
more investigation. And we saw this salt
level change as we started to get higher
in elevation on the mountain. And what it means is that
as the water was receding it got much more salty and that told us that
there was water there. Very salty water and there was
water at both these locations. So now we know that Mars
was a very wet place at one point of time
in the past.We are going to change
gears and talk about
Curiosity a little bit.
Curiosity was launched on
November 26th 2011,
and landed August 5th.We’ve traveled for 9-point…9-point-4, 9-point-5 kilometers
on the surface as of Saul 774.
Curiosity was designed
to drive 20 kilometers and be on the surface
for one Martian year. So, we’ve already made
one Martian year, so we’ve already made part of
our prime commitment to NASA and that… it’s been awesome. It’s been an awesome
couple of years. Now how did we get there?So it’s a little different.Very, very similar
launch sequence
but it’s a different
launch vehicle.
So instead of a
Boeing vehicle, this is a
Lockheed Martin vehicle.
It’s called an Atlas rocket.
It’s built by Lockheed.
It has really
just two stages to orbit.
So you’ve seen
we’ve already got into orbit,
you saw that particular part.Now, this second stage of this
vehicle is much more capable.
It has some retrorockets on it,
it has some thrusters on it.
Now it can spin us up and it
can point us directly at Mars.
So we did the last kick,and then that’s going to
fall back and burn up
in the atmosphere.
What doesn’t burn up
becomes ecosystem for fish.
And now we are going to
start going around.
So now we are on a
direct trajectory to Mars.
You are going to see us
light up the solar arrays
that are around
on the cruise stage.
That’s going to actually
charge up our batteries
and then what we do is,
we supercharge the batteries
and then we discharge themand we keep them at about
80 percent the rest of the way.
Now we are travelling
a little bit slower
because we don’t have
the same lift capability
with the Lockheed vehicle.So we are travelling at
14,500 miles an hour.
And it takes a little bit longerbecause Earth and Mars
are at different orientation.
Deploy a parachute again.We are going to
lose that heat shield
because we don’t want to
get that heat soak
coming back
into the vehicle.
But now everything is changed.We lose the heat shied
and instead of…
lowering a lander with airbagswe are actually going to
cut some cables and bolts,
more or less
and let our Rover
fall toward the surface.
Fire up some rockets and fly.We added a new science
instrument called the
Marty Camera.
This camera is actually
taking images at about 32 frames per second. So we are going to
zoom in on the camera and you’re going to look at
what’s going on.So as we are
falling toward the surface
the camera is taking images
of the surface of Mars,
overlaying them, figuring out
what is our downrange trajectory
and velocity, and if there are
any obstacles that
are in the way.
Once we figure out
there are no obstacles
in the way, we are going to
lower our Rover
on three shoestrings and
an umbilical cord.
Really gingerly hit the groundand once we sense
slack in the cables.
The cables go slack, we cut
the three umbilical cords
and the descent stage
fires up and flies away.
Designed to go 600 meters
away from the vehicle.
It would be bad if it came backand crashed on us,
that would be really bad.
Now we are on our wheels.We are ready to start exploring.So now instead of having to
drive off a lander, we are ready to go
the very first day. Last things that we have
to do is pull up our
remote sensing mast what we call the RSM and pull out our
high-gain antenna. The high-gain antenna
for this vehicle was delivered to us
by the Spanish as a gift… to NASA.Last thing you are going to
see here is
as we start driving around
with Curiosity is that
Curiosity is a
different vehicle.
Instead of being a
roving geologist,
it’s a roving biologist.It’s job is to look for
past places on Mars
that could have sustained life.We get to shoot a laser
at the rock.
Now why did we do that?Instead of having to go over and
touch every rock
and taste every rock…
like we said before,
we can actually fire
the laser at the rock,
burn the surface of the rockand look at the gas
that comes off.
And from that gas we can seewhat the chemical composition
of that rock is.
What are the elements
that are there.
The other thing
that we did with Curiosity
is we added a drill.Now this is the first time
that we will be able to
drill robotically
on another planetary surface.Now we have drilled before
with human beings
on the surface of the moon.Anyway what we are seeing herein the video is what we call
x-ray florescence.
We are actually shooting x-rays
through the rocks,
we agitate them and we can seehow the actual chemicals
are held together.
What is the crystalline
structure and that actually
tells us a lot about what’s going on with rocks
on the surface of Mars.Some more of the testing
that we’ve got
and here what we’re going to
do is,
we’re going to show
the mobility system.
The mobility system
is very similar
to the mobility system
that we had on Pathfinder
and the Mars Exploration Rover.
It’s the rocker-bogie
suspension system
that we’ve used
on all of the vehicles
that we’ve had on the surface.But this one serves
a different purpose.
It actually is our landing gear.So, the wheels that look likethey are one monolithic
structure of aluminum,
they are not.
They are about seven sheets
of paper of aluminum
on the outside shell.
But in the middle it’s titaniumand the titanium is thereto give us sort of a spongy,
flexer feel.
You are going to see us
doing some testing.
We are driving over
obstacles that simulate
what we believe we are going to
get to on Mars,
about 35-centimeter
height obstacles.
We tilt the vehicle to
driver over different surfaces,
we drive on the surface.We have six-wheel drive,
four-wheel steering.
So, all six wheels
of the vehicle can drive,
and all four wheels can
turn toe-in about 90 degrees.
So we can actually turn
about our center of mass.
So if we wanted to turn
in place we actually could.
The vehicle has a top speedof five centimeters per second.It’s boogieing.( audience laughter )It takes us…
I’ll tell you what–
It takes us 45 minutes
to do a football field.
That’s how slow we move.So it’s really, really slow.Now, when you are
300 million miles away from the nearest gas station,
it’s okay to go slow.Where did we go on the surface
of Mars for Curiosity?
Curiosity went to a place
called Gale Crater.
So, why did we go
to this Gale Crater?
The reason we went to
Gale Crater is that…
we wanted to investigate this place called Mount Sharp.And Mount Sharp is this very,
very large mountain.
It’s 5-point-5 kilometers
in size
and what we are looking
for is the different layers
as you drive up the mountain.So, we are going to land,
drive to the mountain and then look at the difference, they say clays,
we’ll just say it
is time periods. So, early time period
to later time period as you drive up this mountain. Trying to see… can we see places on the surface of Mars that once could have
been habitable for life. Could Mars in this location,
around Gale Crater, sustain life and does it have
the building blocks, the basic pieces to
actually have life grow in that location.Then we got some of the
first images back.
So this was actually…
after the first drive.
And you see the
name Curiosity.
After we got to the surface,
we started taking selfies.
( audience laughter )So this is one of the
first selfies of the Rover.
It’s a shadow,
we weren’t really
good at it yet.
Then…( audience laughter )Somebody had some fun
with one of our images.
Optimus Prime came
and visit us…
So…( laughter )
That’s fun.We have a laser.So great, we have a laser.Here’s what people think we do.( audience laughter )Sort of fun.Here’s what we really do.So, you have the picture
on the left, undisturbed soil
picture on the right,
five laser holes.
I’ll show it to you a different
way, I’ll show a video.
So, here’s a video of us
burning a hole in the ground.
Pretty exciting, you can
see sort of the by-products
coming off.
You can’t see the gas. But what we are actually doing
is we’re burning a hole, looking for the gas so we
can tell what it’s made of. So, the first thing that
happened after we got–
after we landedwe drove to this area on Mars
that was very interesting.
Within the first three monthsof being at this location,
we were able to say,
one, Gale Crater was wet.Number two, it can sustain life.Now we can’t say that
there was life there but we can say that
if there was, it would have been
able to be sustained. There are all of the
chemical compositions that are needed to support life.Paying homage to some of
our great explorers before us,
footprint of Buzz Aldrin and
then Curiosity Rover footprint.
Our first scoop,so we now went down and
we scooped up some of the dirt.
We are going to actually
take that inside the vehicle.
Some more of
these analogues.
So, looks like riverbeds.Picture on the left
is uncorrected,
just an image that comes backfrom the surface of Mars,
looks like a riverbed.
You can see
false cover image of Mars
that’s sort of in the middleand then an Earth riverbed.Looks very, very similar.Here is the first time
we are going to sample,
we are going to drill
into the surface of Mars.
I can tell you
this took a long time.
It took us about four weeksto actually make this
one little hole.
Here’s a picture
of the hole up close.
The next image is
after we’ve taken that
and we ingest it inside,we can actually separate
different particle size.
So we can take things that are
down to the couple microns.
We will sift those out,then we can deliver those
to different instruments.
Here’s a picture of Mount Sharp.This is where we wanted to goIt was an early picture.There’s a rock that’s out
in the distance,
that rock is 5-point-5
kilometers away from our Rover
and it’s approximately
the same size as the Rover.
And we are thinking,
“Oh, my goodness,
it would so great
if we can make it there.”
The other thing that
you will notice in this image,
if you are looking
closely is there’s clouds.
Mars does have clouds
just like Earth, right.
So there is moisture
in the atmosphere.
So, this image shows sort
of our trajectory to get down
to the start of the mountain.And as we were driving
we were starting to figure out,
“Oh, my goodness
there’s parts of Mars
that are really, really scary”.And the reason they are really,
really scary is that the rocks
that are on the surface are different than
we have ever seen anywhere else
on the surface of Mars. As we were driving on Mars
with Spirit and Opportunity, we’d hit a rock and
we’d break it or push it over and
move it out of the way. In this particular area,
the rocks are like cemented
into the ground. And then they have this word,
I don’t know, I’m just going to use it,
it’s called Ventifacted rocks. In other words
the rocks are wind-blown. So, if you can imagine
you are covered with water and as the water recedes, the
wind starts working on the rock and as it recedes,
it sharpens the rock. So the rocks look like teeth. Very, very sharp teeth. And as we are driving over them, we are puncturing holes
in the wheels. So, we thought,
“Oh, my goodness, one, we have to figure
how not to hurt our wheels, and number two,
we have to figure out where
to drive around things.”So, you can see we take
sort of this really crazy path.
And then we got to the place
that’s at the end of
this particular image.And the scientists had a choice. We could go right, effectively right from
the Rover’s perspective and go through this area,
right here, which is a choke point. There’s really no way to get out
if you get in there. Or we could go straight, very, very bad rocks. So we chose to go right.
So we go right. We end up rightwe take some images
of our wheels.
We started to see lots of wear as we were driving over this
area called the Hummocky Plains. And the hole that you see is,
eh, sort of benign. The thing that’s actually,
really scary is the hole
that’s underneath that. And the reason it’s scary as we are driving over the
surface what we are going to do is the wheel is taking load,
right, it’s moving, it’s actually getting stressed. And every time you do that you are actually having
this crack propagate. And we were worried,
“Oh, my goodness, how are the wheels
going to fail?” These cracks are going
to propagate across the wheel and then part of the wheel
is going to fall off. And the part of the wheel
that falls off is it going to hit anything
that’s bad? Because there’s cables
all around this. So, as the wheel falls apart,
is it going to do this. So now what we are doing is selectively on different
soils we are driving the
Rover backwards. So, driving backwards actually takes a little bit of the load
off the front wheels… about the same
in the middle wheels, and then starts to do
the damage to the back wheels. But that’s okay because they are not
damaged at all at this point. So we are going to start
to try to even out the wear across the wheels so that we get a little bit
of longer driving. The other thing we noticed and I told you we went
to that choke point is that with damaged wheels we could drive over
sand dunes better. So,
climbing over nice light stuff was actually better with
these holes in the wheel.So, we turn right
we get to the sand dune.
Now we’ve done some testing,we know that we could
drive over it.
But as all good engineers and
all good scientists, go,
“Well, what happens if there’s
really sharp rocks
underneath the dune?”So we argue for about two days, about driving over this dune
and I’m thinking, “Golly, it’s only a meter tall, only a meter tall,
you know three feet. And the Rover’s belly
is 75 centimeters, so three-quarters of a meter. So, if it was really
just light, fluffy you know sand dune
we would get stuck. But the reality is that the
rover would sort of
float over it. But we were freaked out,
for a little while. So, we did some testing.
And then we decided to go. But we didn’t decide
to go all at once. We put a toe in and
then put another toe in, we drove up to the top
and looked over and then we drove back.
Then we said, “Okay, go.”So here’s the image
from the other side.
Here’s the video of us driving
over that particular obstacle.
Sort of fun. But it took us
a while to do that.
Then we have where we’ve gone.So we land at Bradbury,we go over to Yellowknife Bay.And now we are
at the Pahrump Hills.
Now the Pahrump Hills are more
or less the gateway to
Mount Sharp.
Our first drill at
Pahrump Hills.
Now you can see it really
sort of looks clayish.
We do some
close-up investigation,
we can see these lines,
looks like secretions.
And hard stuff around it,the mineral that we believe
that’s there,
and we were just doing
some investigation
right now,
looks like hematite…
which only forms
in water here on Earth. So, it looks like we are
finding another place that was really wet
on the surface of Mars.And then we can talk
about what’s coming next.
In 2020, we’ll have a new Rover.You can see some of the science.The science suite
has been announced.
You can see the
international collaboration
that’s going to happen.Very, very similar vehicle
to Curiosity in terms of size,
but has a different mission.And it’s mission really is going
to go sample the surface of Mars
and capture the samples.And hopefully return them
back to Earth.
So, now as I close I’m going to show you
some of my favorite images from the surface.This image is from Curiosity.And you see that star…that’s out there?
That’s Earth.
And in high-resolution
you can see the moon.
And now I’ll show
you my favorite video… my favorite image.This is from
the top of Husband Hill.
This is one of the last things
that we got from Spirit.
And if we had been able…
had a little bit better camera,
we could have seen Earth set.And I’ll show you this
as a video.
And this is the
Sun setting on Mars.
And, the thing that makes melove this image so much isliterally the fact that…some day a human being will
stand on the surface of Mars and say,
“I am watching the Earth set and then I am watching
the Sun set.” And I can’t wait for that day. Thank you guys so very much. It’s been awesome.
( applause ) ( outro music )

100 thoughts on “The Curious Life of a Mars Rover | Nat Geo Live”

  1. It's crazy that NASA spends years developing a rover but SpaceX is literally planning to send a cybertruck that's faster than a Porsche 911 to mars.

  2. At 23:11 I saw Pahrump Hills and for some reason I thought of Donald Trump. Then I started thinking, I wonder if Donald Trump has started to try to invest in Mars Real Estate?

  3. You know how easy it is to perceive people into believing that what we’re watching is really another planet vs it really just a set up, no one has ever been able to leave earth 🌍 and don’t think it has ever been done

  4. LMAO !!! First stage 'falls back and becomes an ecosystem for the fish'…
    If I get pulled over for littering, can I just tell the cop that I wasn't littering,,, I just let that cup fall back so that it could become an ecosystem for the ants ?

  5. Hi, Instead of just roving around sending scientific datas, why not scatter seeds of plants and Veges , fruit of trees and palms, eggs of insects, birds and animals. If all these can thrive , then perhaps send human embryos there. I have a few select ladies from the primitive technology program who can survive in Mars environment. I can help service these talented ladies and prepare them to be mothers in Mars.

  6. 200 complex organisms go extinct everyday on earth because of humans and we spend billions looking for a microbe on another planet. Humans<<Stupidity

  7. FAKE NEWS! Made and filmed in Area 41 and Arizona Deserts. FAKE FAKE FAKE!!How MUCH Money did NASA spend so Far on those Missions??? $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ How MUCH Footage did We Humans down here on Earth GET to see of their Missions? What did we get to see?? Only b/w Pics that were FAKE, Made on Earth ! How come there are almost NO Footage of Film material that peace of junks driving around MARS?? How come, which Earthlings have achieved such a high state of Technology, those vehicles do NOT Film 24 hours a day on Mars, wether their just sitting around and does nothing or it´s moving! Why is that?? Affright that suddenly one of those Humans may detect a Bird flying by like in Upstate Arizona? Or a Plane Go by???

  8. Why did the balloon in which the car fell on Mars' land in the same direction in which the vehicle was kept upright? Why didn't the balloon fall in the other direction while the balloon was triangular?

  9. I bet this guy had nothing to do with curiosity he probably just saw a job ad for a presenter and decided to apply for it and NASA just told him what to say

  10. ตรงแผงโซล่าเซล มีที่ทำความสะอาดอัตโนมัติไหมครับ

  11. I've heard that the dust on mars was easy to get off of the equipment due to lack of static electricity….so cool! I wonder if mars desert sand is same,as earth…🌎 👽 🌎 👽 🌎


  13. He is a great speaker. So interesting i didn't want to skip anything. Everything perfectly explained. Used simple words with powerful presentation

  14. NASA uses a custom encryption on all spacecraft Earthbound image/video communications, images first go to a secure server, their de-encrypted with very strict image release procedures all images and/or video is edited before release. Why can't we see images direct from the spacecraft? NASA controls the complete narrative, we see nothing before they've had an opportunity to scrutinize the images before release days, months, years pass before images are released to the public many hours of editing is shown in the image history. When supposed video is advertised as "you're the first to see" video it's viewed elsewhere first before being shown with about a 5-minute delay where the images are carefully checked before allowing them shown in a public setting. We are being lied to by NASA, the Moon, Mars, objects in space, international space station video are all carefully choreographed before being given to the public. Live images from the Space Station is interrupted whenever unknown objects come into view. We are continually being lied to in every aspects of space exploration, NASA must come clean or we should remove all funding for space exploration operations.

  15. 2:18 he claimed that the heat sheild reaches a temperature of about the same temperature at the surface of the sun 1600 degrees centigrade

    That a crucial mistake for a guy who supposed to know about astronomy, space and physics!!

    Either he want to impress an igronat audience or this guy is a joke

  16. Voyager ones message from Jimmy Carter (39th US President), “We are attempting to survive our time so we may one day live in yours.”…”We hope one day you write back, it’s lonely here and we may be the last humans left”.

  17. He keeps saying interstellar but this is an interplanetary mission, you would think a NASA engineer would know the difference.

  18. If the momentum of the space race was maintained, the person giving this talk would be talking about what they did on mars last summer.

  19. "Once we light that second stage, first stage falls back to orbit and becomes an ecosystem for the fish"
    Is this marketing for space litter? xD

  20. Talk slower buddy….you are not fleeing but rather explaining complex operations….and not everybody is a native speaker.

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