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Voyage to Pandora: First Interstellar Space Flight

Voyage to Pandora: First Interstellar Space Flight

The year is 2154. Our planet has been ruined
by environmental catastrophe. In the movie Avatar, greedy prospectors from
Earth descend on the world of an innocent hunter-gatherer people called the Na’vi. Their home is a lush moon far beyond our solar
system called Pandora. Could such a place exist? And could our technology… and our appetite
for exploration… one day send us hurtling out to reach it? In fact, the supposed site of this fictional
solar system is one of our most likely interstellar targets, until a better destination turns
up. Pandora orbits a fictional gas planet called
Polyphemus. Its home is a real place… Alpha Centauri…
the brightest star in the southern constellation of Centaurus. At 4.37 light years away, it’s part of the
closest star system to our sun. Alpha Centauri is actually two stars, A and
B, one slightly larger and more luminous than our own sun, the other slightly smaller. The two stars orbit one other, swinging in
as close as Saturn is to our Sun… then back out to the distance of Pluto. This means that any outer planets in this
system… anything beyond, say, the orbit of Mars… would likely have been pulled away
by the companion and flung out into space. For this reason, Alpha Centauri was not high
on planet hunters’ lists… until they began studying a star 45 light years away called
“Gamma Cephei.” {SEF-ee-eye} It has a small companion star that goes around
it every 76 years. Now, it seems… it also has at least one planet. That world is about the size of Jupiter, and
it has planet hunters excited. Perhaps two-thirds of all the stars in our galaxy are in so-called
binary relationships. That means there could be many more planets
in our galaxy that astronomers once assumed. At least three teams are now conducting long-term
studies of Alpha Centauri… searching for slight wobbles in the light of each companion
star that could indicate the presence of planets. If they find a planet that passes in front
of one of the stars, astronomers will begin intensive studies to find out what it’s like. One of their most promising tools will be
the James Webb Space Telescope, scheduled for launch in 2014 or 2015. From a position
a million miles away from Earth, it will deploy a sun shield the size of a tennis court, and
a mirror over 21 feet wide. The largest space telescope ever built, it
will offer an extraordinary new window into potential solar systems like Alpha Centauri. With its infrared light detectors, this telescope
will be able to discern the chemical composition of a planet’s atmosphere… and perhaps whether
it harbors a moon like Pandora. One prominent planet hunter predicted that
if a habitable world is found at Alpha Centauri, the planning for a space mission would begin
immediately. Here’s that star duo as seen by the Cassini
spacecraft just above the rings of Saturn. To actually get to this pair of stairs, you
have to travel as far as the orbit of Saturn, then go another 30,000 times further. Put another way, if the distance to Alpha
Centauri is the equivalent of New York to Chicago, then Saturn would be just… one
meter away. So far, the immense distances of space have
not stopped us from launching missions into deep space. In 1977, the twin Voyager spacecraft were
each sent on their way aboard Titan 3 Centaur rockets. After a series of gravitational assists from
the giant outer planets, the spacecraft are now flying out of the solar system at about
40,000 miles per hour. They are moving so quickly that they could
whip around the Earth in just 45 minutes, twice as fast as the International Space Station. Voyager I has now traveled over 110 astronomical
units. That’s 110 times the distance from Earth to the Sun… or about 10 billion miles.
But don’t hold your breath… If it was headed in the right direction, it
would need another 73,000 years to travel the 273,000 astronomical units to Alpha Centauri. When it comes to space travel, we’ve yet to
realize the dream forged by rocketeers a century ago. A Russian school teacher, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky,
inspired generations of space visionaries with sophisticated ideas about multi-stage
launch vehicles. He imagined the construction of space stations
in Earth orbit, and eventually vast permanent space colonies. In time, he predicted, we’d evolve into a
whole new species… Homo Cosmicus. Since then, rocketry’s greatest advances have
centered on ways of containing explosive propellants… and methods of maintaining stable flight at
high speeds. The problem is that chemical rockets are just
not efficient for long distance space travel. To reach the speed needed to escape Earth’s
gravity, 17,000 miles per hour, the space shuttle must carry fifteen times its weight
in fuel. And that’s efficient, compared to some other rocket systems. And you’d need
to travel more than 25,000 miles per hour to break free of Earth’s orbit and go anywhere
else. A NASA study showed that to send a space shuttle
sized craft to Alpha Centauri in 900 years would take an unbelievable amount of fuel:
10 to the 137th kilograms of rocket propellant. Suffice it to say… it’s more mass than is
in the entire visible universe. While only a very tiny percentage of NASA’s
budget goes to advanced propulsion, there are some promising ideas on the drawing board. Rockets powered by nuclear fuel… Or plasma… a supervolatile gas. Huge sails pushed along by the pressure of
photons from the Sun. Ion drives. To reach Alpha Centauri within a human time
scale, we’ll have to go with most potent fuel in nature that we current know… It’s the science fiction fuel of choice… Anti-matter. In James Cameron’s Avatar, hybrid nuclear
fusion and antimatter engines power a mile long interstellar spaceship. At a speed of
670 million miles per hour, this vehicle makes the journey to Alpha Centauri in just six
years. Anti matter really does exist… as the mirror
image of the universe we know. It consists of electrons and protons, but with their electrical
charges reversed. Whenever it comes into contact with normal matter, the two annihilate each
other in a ferocious blast of energy. Large amounts of antimatter were created and
destroyed in the fiery dawn of our universe, the Big Bang. But somehow, in one of the great
mysteries in science, we were left with a universe whose visible substance is almost
all normal matter. The universe still produces antimatter through
powerful collisions… such as a jet from a black hole slamming into a cloud of gas. When matter and antimatter obliterate one
another, they emit gamma radiation that we can then detect with instruments such as the
Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope. Fortunately, black holes aren’t the only way
to generate antimatter. In giant labs like the Large Hadron Collider, scientists accelerate
atoms to nearly the speed of light… and blast them together to expose their fundamental
constituents. Small amounts of antimatter can be made this
way, but it’s incredibly expensive. With a dedicated facility, the cost of producing
it might come down far enough to produce usable amounts. And that’s the hope of one researcher… Dr. Gerald Smith has been working for over
a decade to find a way to trap this volatile substance… and store it in isolation from
the rest of the universe. Smith and his colleagues have designed a trap
the size of a cigar case. It sits within a tank filled with liquid nitrogen
and liquid helium designed to cool it down to 270 degrees below zero. Once injected into this trap, antimatter particles
are suspended by magnetic fields, within a vacuum as empty as deepest space. But the problem is that anti-electrons, called
positrons, tend to repel each other… explosively. That makes it tough to store more than a few
at a time. This team now believes it may have discovered
a pathway to storing large amounts over longer periods of time. Their solution lies in combining positrons
with electrons, forming an element called positronium. In theory, with the right magnetic
fields, these electrically neutral atoms might be held indefinitely. When released under controlled conditions,
ultra high-energy antimatter beams could turn out to be ideal cancer killers… or lead
to revolutionary industrial applications… Or perhaps, one day… they could power long
distance space flight. It wouldn’t take much. Antimatter is so potent
that it defies common sense: A chunk the size of a small coin could propel the space shuttle
into orbit. Smith estimates that once in low Earth Orbit
a human mission to Mars would take as little as 10 milligrams worth. The basic idea of an anti-matter rocket engine
is simple. A beam of positrons is released into the engine core… where it annihilates
the surface of a metal plate. That creates an explosion that propels the craft forward. Another design uses a sail. A cloud of antimatter
particles reacts explosively to its surface… propelling it forward. Short of traveling to another solar system,
there may be good reasons to contemplate developing antimatter propulsion. A preliminary mission would speed beyond the
orbit of Pluto, sending back close-up images at dark planet-like objects that ring the
solar system out in the Kuiper Belt. A longer distance probe could reveal new details
about the Oort Cloud, a vast realm of comets that envelopes the solar system. Once out there, it could sample particles
that make up the interstellar medium… or send back unique data sets on dark matter
– the invisible stuff that makes up the overwhelming portion of our Universe. To make it all the way to Alpha Centauri within
50 years, an antimatter probe would have to gradually accelerate to around ten percent
the speed of light… that’s 67 million miles per hour. It would then gradually decelerate as it approached
its destination. At those speeds, hitting even a grain of dust
could destroy the spacecraft. So it might be best to slow the journey down to a century
or more. It’s safe to assume for now that we’d only
send a probe there if we discovered a habitable world. There may be other choices in our solar neighborhood.
They include Proxima Centauri, a red dwarf star 4.2 light years away that may be gravitationally
bound to Alpha Centauri. Beyond that, not quite 6 light years away,
is Bernard’s Star. Or there’s Lalande 21185, a red dwarf 8.3
light years away. We already know it has two Jupiter-sized planets. There are at least 22 stars within 12 light
years of Earth. And anyway you look at it, the first interstellar
voyage will be a quantum leap for humanity. The urge to reach out to distant horizons…
to climb the highest peaks… to push ourselves past our perceived limits… seems to be a
vital part of what makes us human. Yet explorers of old set off not just because
“it was there.” At times it was greed, hunger, fear, and despair that propelled them from
their homelands… and allowed them to endure their long journeys. Whether we attempt to make a leap to the stars…
may come to depend on how we regard this planet. To the physicist Stephen Hawking, the journey
is imperative. “I don’t think the human race,” he said, “will
survive the next thousand years unless we spread into space. There are too many accidents
that can befall life on a single planet.” Indeed, we can’t foresee the impact of wars…
social upheaval… or the course of human civilization in coming centuries. But today we can see the often conflicting
trends today that could one-day propel us out into the interstellar void. On one hand, the technological advances that
might make such a mission possible could revolutionize many other aspects of life on this planet. The ever-increasing rate at which numbers
of transistors can be placed inexpensively on a computer microchip has become a metaphor
for the advance of all technologies in this century. From a few thousand transistors on the first
printed circuits of the 1970s… computer chips now have billions etched onto their
surfaces. Even that number could seem amazingly small
in another few decades. Many observers forecast a steep rise – even
an acceleration – in the pace of invention and basic research… and for whole of new
solutions to the problems of energy, food production, health, and more. On the other hand, major periods of scarcity
may loom. In the 20th century, the world saw the largest
increase in its human population, from less than two billion up to six billion. The world’s population is now around 6.8 billion. It’s expected to reach 9 to 10 billion by
the year 2040, with the biggest gains in Asia and Africa. According to a recent UN report, the world
will have to produce 70% more food by the year 2050… and at least that much more energy…
to sustain its population. The scarcity of simple clean water in some
regions is already frightening. Now throw in environmental impacts like rising
sea levels or the spread of deserts linked to a gradually warming climate. The culprit,
to most scientists, is rising emissions of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide since
the start of the industrial revolution. This map charts rising temperature readings
from the year 1885 through to the present. In some places, they’ve gone up by as much
two and a half degrees Fahrenheit. Computer models project the trend out to the
end of this century. Depending on population growth, energy use, and conservation… temperatures
could rise anywhere from two to eleven degrees more. Will technological advancements allow us to
halt the degradation of our natural environments and increase the carrying capacity of our
planet? Will we find ways to mitigate the impacts
of war, natural catastrophes, or political upheavals? No doubt, if or when we launch our first mission
beyond this solar system, the occasion will spur reflection on who and what we have become
as a people… as a planet… just as the first missions to the Moon and our neighboring
planets once did. At first, we’ll send a probe designed to relay
basic information on what’s there… on a world whose light we have only studied from
afar. As this cosmic emissary makes its way across
the void, we on Earth will continue to struggle in our pursuits of happiness, prosperity…
and mere survival. When it arrives, we’ll scan the data for evidence
of a world like our own… one that may harbor life. How will our perspectives on that world –
and upon our own – have changed? 8

100 thoughts on “Voyage to Pandora: First Interstellar Space Flight”

  1. We must stop and save the planet and slow down, our generation can be known as “the era that saved the planet”

  2. ท่านปู่ครับมีสารคดีเครืองบินเจ็ทหรือเปล่าครับ

  3. As long as the jews politics based by HATE, Fear, GREED and Money.. still rules the human civilization, we will NEVER reach that level of technology.. we are still keept in the CAGE of religion, but you dream about these kind of interstellar technology?! :)).. you're soooo funny! 😂

  4. Antimatter does not exist cannot control what if it did don't kid yourself nuclear has been in space for 20 years even though our government's tonight

  5. I'm assuming we have all heard of your cloud This is the Orca cloud so far out even if we get there we cannot measure it so how do we know it's true it's a scientist guess hope it's an educated guess I want spend my money on it

  6. The population is growing not because of the u.s. it's because third world countries continue do have babies they can't feed and what do we do we subsidizing that's called taking care of the children need to stop

  7. What will happen is simple. Our robots will make it billions of years. We will forget we sent them after a few administrations of defunding. Then it will take years to get the signal back @182k mps light speed.. 10 more years to send the message back they have been defunded. YOUR FIRED.. good luck

  8. One question begs to mind! Why do we have to travel billions and billions of miles away which would take an insane amount of time, when the solution could be on our door step. I.e. Mars! They say recent discoveries have confirmed the presence of water on its surface, so i'm pretty sure that in a near future our technology as progressed to such an extent, that we should be able to colonise it, and build huge Martian bases, and divert the surplus population over there. With the added benefit to be a stone throw away (by such time that is) from earth, and been able to come back and visit the relatives every six months or so! Just my two cents!

  9. The way to go further maybe is to get smaller. Maybe the quantum world is actually connected to the vast distances of the heavens. And the key to teleportation into the macro world is to travel the distance.

  10. Our curiosity and our built-in urge to explore and keep exploring deeper, are things that make us human. They are positive attributes. But we also know by now that our negative attributes are equally built-in, and that means we will always be a predatory species, one that will even prey on its own kind (although for power, not food). I have heard of nothing that could rid us completely of this attribute. We would be automatically suspicious of any alien life form we found, which isn't necessarily bad, but in humans it usually develops rapidly into fear and hate, followed by attacks. We don't have the capacity to appreciate what is different, enough to make us do that, rather than assuming that we should attack whatever is alien to us. We are truly unfit to populate the cosmos, because we'd populate new places with our worst attributes intact and more active than our better ones.
    Unless we can grow up, we're not fit to populate the stars. There's no way to take the predator out of us enough to populate the stars in a civilized fashion. We'd be at one another's throats, even if there were no aliens to become acquainted with. Trying to remove the genes that make us so prone to violence and hate would probably result badly. We would legitimately need some of that predatory trait, but how to decide how much to get rid of? And how to get rid of it without failing as a species.
    Knowing human nature as I do, I can't hope for humans to populate anywhere other than the Earth. We're doing such a bad job of it right here, that we'd probably do even worse anywhere else.

  11. As long as greed controls the minds of men and woman. We'll never be free of the blight of trying to have more than your fair share. But, WE must not allow those who refuse to do their fair share. To rob from those who work. No matter how fat and/or lazy you are. You need to WORK for a living wage. WAKE UP AMERICA and MEXICO and MUSLEMS.

  12. It would be great if we could build a colider in space instead on earth it would be more better for the earth and it could give us more antimatter than using the colider here on earth.

  13. Steven Hawking was such an alarmist. I don’t believe that we must exit Earth for the survival of the human population. Time to slow down the growth of the population, especially in nations with very large gains. Let’s look after this plant first and foremost.

  14. Space is endless energy, it can be harnessed and used as fuel. But every solar system has a energy point known a jump points as pointed out in Guardians of the Galaxy. These are factual and NASA DOD SF etc has proof of said areas. We need quantum technology to access these points to figure out the frequency to open and connect to the next frequency it works like a radio signal we as humans can do the math etc to figure it out but it can take years hence the need for a quantum computer.

  15. I used to believe in science until the day I discovered that we don't have a real picture of the place we lives on. I now know majority are just wandering around lies like this one above.

  16. What if Pandora is >1000 ly away? Probability would say most likely. Since humans will eventually go extinct if we do nothing, then what do we have to lose? But even a successful colony will suffer the same fate. Enjoy your meaninglessness life.

  17. The Webb Telescope is going to tell us and show us closest planetary systems near Stars and we'll be able to image it and we'll know if there's artificial light will know if there's vegetation will know if there's animals microorganisms with the spec tastrophe capability it's more likely that dentist Olaf is it is that we have come from closer Stars then from another galaxy or something like that

  18. We ruined one planet,
    Let's go ruin another one.
    I'm glad this video is putting out so many lies and ignorance.

  19. To get to any other star we would need to harvest all of the energy from one star that would get you half way there and have to harvest another star to slow down. And if you did that there would be no place to survive. So we're here on earth make the best of it. Don't stop dreaming

  20. Many places like that do exist, I am sure.
    But, humans should stay away from paradises as such! We will make this unlivable over time, too. Unless humans will learn how to preserve their environment and live in peace with each other, or newly discovered worlds in the future. But that's too much to hope for…

  21. One most important point to remember is take care me first!!! Our safe place from earths and human corruptions is space.

  22. Rockets will not work in a vacuum ( Space ) because there is nothing to push off of. And like NASA said in 2017, mankind lives in a controlled enviroment ( Encased on a flat earth with a dome over our heads and can NOT fly above low earth orbit. ) In the 1950's Russia and the USA blew off hydrogen bombs against the dome to get out. They finally gave up when radiation increased and cancer rates jumped dramatically. WE DID NOT GO TO THE MOON because we can't get past the dome.

  23. Does anyone know what the plan is for when this warm period ends, and the next glaciation begins, and it just gets colder and stays cold for 100,000yrs, during which time glaciers over a mile thick cover half of North America, Europe and Russia? Anyone?

  24. Every single one of these DUST thingies has “environmental catastrophe.” To me—it’s more like democrat socialist progressive commie bstrd catastrophe. Led by Barry Soetoro.

  25. Очень трудно слушат
    Сабачий Английский язык !

    Приходится вырубать его !

  26. A human population of 10 Billion by 2040! Can we not see the problem here. The human race is on a path to its own destruction, and in the process it will effect all species on earth. The industry required to feed, cloth, medicate and house 10 billion people will add to this destruction. The seas will be fished out, deforestation will be rife , in favor of the agriculture, human habitation and key industrial areas. We people need to get our own house in order before we go seeking out new places to inhabit.

  27. Do you know what will be the best thing about most of the first interplanetary space travelers from Earth ? They will be well educated white people. Read into that what you will. But where would our world be today if it wasn't for the inventions, and discoveries of educated white people ? The greatest piece of paper ever written. The United States Constitution . I rest my case.

  28. I am not a religious man …but after 65 years of wondering “what if”, and “are we alone?” I have come to a theory and I use the “Drake Equation”,…the universe is full of life. BUT and this is the kicker…God said sure there’s a lot of life, different types of species beyond our puny imaginations, “but I have separated this life so not to contaminate another world with your beliefs, values, morals, and most of all religions.. you are a warring species so I do not need to prove that. And to search and find another world, we all know what you would do….1st contaminate it with your diseases, 2nd, rob it of all natural resources, 3rd and this is the coup de gras, kill anything or one in your way… yup…let’s just stay here and keep ruining this world…then one day we will go extinct….

  29. So this really wasn't about going to another planet as it was just another climate change plug. Complete waste of time.

  30. Fascinating! I have been trying to follow the journeys of both Voyagers! Thank you for your uploads that open up even for laymen like me!

  31. If we earthlings go out into the universe and we go and start mining a backward planet like Pandora, won't this open up a case for a more advanced race to be allowed to come to earth to do exactly as they please. . . .

    We should be very careful where we throw our space junk even. .

  32. glaringly obvious non truths stated here..he says that the billions of transistors on chips could seem like a really small number in future years…well…no..simply not possible, because we are already down to 7 nano meters, get any smaller and they leak through quantum tunneling, even tho this is solved, it's still not going to mean much, because each transistor is already made up of a small number of atoms, so even if a transistor can be made of , say, 4 atoms, that's not much of an increase in chip will have to think of something else.

  33. I lasted a whole 75 seconds. Aside from the narration being a jerky, monotone computer voice, the opening is garbage. Kudos to those who could stand this crap.

  34. Carbon Dioxide is essential to growth plants, it's not toxic, Green house effect is a big lie!
    The climate change is due to Solar activities, clouds, sea stream …

  35. Looking for alien civilization and rise of AI technology….no worries folks this are 2 ways to extinct humans,choose one.




    " O company of jinn and men,if ye have power to penetrate (all) regions of the heavens and the earth,then penetrate (them)!

    Ye will never penetrate them save with (Our) sanction".

    سورہ الملک
    The Sovereignty

    تبارک الذی بیدہ الملک , و ھو علی کل شئ قدیر الذی خلق سبع سموات طباقا , ما تری فی خلق الرحمن من تفوت , فارجع البصر ھل تری من فتور . ثم ارجع البصر کرتین ینقلب الیک البصر خاسئا و ھو حسیر .
    Blessed is He in Whose hands is Dominion; and He over all things hath Power;-
    He Who created Death and Life, that He may try which of you is best in deed: and He is the Exalted in Might, Oft-Forgiving;-
    He Who created the seven heavens one above another: No want of proportion wilt thou see in the Creation of (Allah) Most Gracious. So turn thy vision again: seest thou any flaw?
    Again turn thy vision a second time: (thy) vision will come back to thee dull and discomfited, in a state worn out.
    And we have, (from of old), adorned the lowest heaven with Lamps, and We have made such (Lamps) (as) missiles to drive away the Evil Ones, and have prepared for them the Penalty of the Blazing Fire.
    For those who reject their Lord (and Cherisher) is the Penalty of Hell: and evil is (such), Destination.

    We are asked to observe, study and research the cosmos again and again, and as minutely as our powers will allow. However closely we observe the cosmos
    we shall find no flaw in creation of Almighty Allah.

    The universe is so vast and stretches so far beyond our ken,that our eyes aided with most powerful telescopes will confess themselves defeated in trying to penetrate to the ultimate6 mystries.

    We shall find no defect in Allah's handiwork: it is our own powers that we shall find fail to go beyond a certain compass.

  37. Most astronomers and technologists are illogical. They want to go to oxygen-free metal planets to transform them into a livable planet! At the same time resources are available in poor countries only need the money spent on that science fiction. To recruit people in agriculture, livestock and water desalination for a few years until these poor countries are self-sufficient

  38. 2154 no way. All we will be discussing is how many genders exist and what is the size of new iPhone sadly.

  39. 4.5 light years.. whats that, like, 3 trillion miles. At voyager 1 speeds, we can get there in only around 100000 years hmmm

  40. Remember that American dollars are never out of order … so if we go into the future there are no problems … but if we come from the future we can't use post-dated banknotes !!! … But on Pandora what kind of currency will we find ??? … the Intergalactic sesterces ??? …

  41. Call it what you want to, the truth is……… We're totally screwed!!! Face it, WE ARE SCREWED! It's only a matter of how long now before it's completely over?

  42. man kind has destroyed our own planet, full of coruption greed envy and strife. i would think first is we change our hearts as a human race first . could be our mortal existance was not meant travel the stars but we must our selves change into beings that can travel through time. We only little blue spot around in the milky way and we are not going any where fast . the Greed corutption death will follow us even if we could go anywhere. i think if there was any one out there aliens they be very grevious to see our filth and greed and coruption and destroying of the earth in a negitive way.

    mankind has to change if we would venture out to the stars

  43. Greedy prospectors? Aren't they looking for an element that will save humanity from extinction? Also the Navi are not peaceful hunter gathers, the are a deeply religious, warrior patriarchy constantly controlled by a sentient entity that forces the balance of everything on the planet. The Navi have even been wiped out by this entity many times to prevent overpopulation. Jake is a traitor to humanity who landed on the planet peacefully and gave medicines and education in exchange for rights to mine the element needed. The Navi returned the favor by killing people and ruining expensive equipment. Humans even spent millions per unit on special Navi hybrids that would bridge the gap and help peaceful relations. Humanity could have simply glassed the navi from orbit and taken the stuff but they spent decades and trillions to prevent conflict.

  44. The year is 2154 and our planet has been ruined by SOYBOYS with NO sperm count due to estrogen mimicking compounds in SOY products. Meanwhile, what real women are left, prefer dildos to the flaccid soyboys populating the planet.

    The rich, elite PEDOPHILES like Epstein prefer PRE-pubescent girls who can't conceive. So population DECLINE is going EXPONENTIAL. And it doesn't help that Epstein and his ilk MURDER the kids that they rape to death.

  45. That stars close enough with us and dieng 😂 when our sun become red big 😂 that red stars alpha century will explode 😂

  46. Of course the very first thing we would do is become intergalactic plundererers. The current Champion plundererers will not like the competition. No doubt we will be smacked down…lol

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